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3D TV is the abbreviation for 3D television and refers to the separate transmission of video signals for the left and the right eye to create an impression of spatial depth (3D).



Originates from the Greek word "analogia" and describes something that is "similar to" or "continuous". An analogue transmission is carried by signals that are continuous in value and in time.



An antenna (called an aerial when used for domestic TV reception) is a system for transmitting/receiving electromagnetic waves.



Services that can be received by the DVB-T receiver in addition to TV channels. For example EPG (Electronic Program Guide) or multimedia add-on services. Please note that only mhp MultiText compatible DVB-T receivers can display the multimedia add-on services.



The Latin word "Audio" means "I'm listening" in English ("audire" = to listen). Audio is applied to the recording, transmission, editing and reproduction of sounds and music. The term is also used to refer to equipment, for instance "audio system".





The smallest digital unit of information. A ‘Bit’ is a binary figure (0 or 1).


Bit Error Rate

The Bit Error Rate is the proportional relation of erroneous bits to the total of bits transmitted.


Bit Rate

The transmission rate of serial, digital information measured in Mbits.



Translated literally, the French word ‘bouquet’ refers to a bunch of flowers. A programme bouquet is a compilation of programmes for various interest groups or sectors put together by one or a number of programme providers.


Blu-ray Disc

Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical storage medium. It is the high-definition successor for the DVD and provides a far greater data transfer rate and storage capacity. Blu-rays enable the storage of films at a far higher definition.


Electromagnetic waves

From the physics viewpoint, electromagnetic waves are propagating oscillations of the electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic waves include, for instance, invisible light and radio waves. A particular characteristic of electromagnetic waves is that the direction of propagation is orthogonal to the direction of oscillation, which manifests itself as the polarisation.


Encoder/ Encoding

Also referred to as coder/coding. Electronic device used to encrypt the signals.


End device specifications

Varying specifications have been set for DVB-T and DVB-S end devices in correspondence with the differing requirements consumers express. These specifications contain minimum requirements for DVB-T and DVB-S receiving devices and ensure that all the programmes offered (i.e. by ORF eins, ORF2, ATV, PULS 4, ORF SPORT PLUS and 3sat) can be received without any difficulties.



The Electronic Program Guide is a digital programme guide built into the receiver. The EPG provides information on current and upcoming TV programming. The channel summary contains at least the title, time and length of each programme. In addition, the user can also display synopses of the programme content, including pictures. Since the guide is integrated in the receiver, channels can be switched over from within the EPG or a selected TV programme can be programmed for recording.


Error protection

Error protection includes all measures that protect the bit sequences of useful data from errors or correct any errors that occur.


Free to Air

Free to Air (FTA) refers to channels that are distributed unencrypted via the terrestrial network, cable or satellite. The opposite of Free-to-Air channels are encrypted channels.



Frequency refers to the number of electromagnetic oscillations per second. It is measured in units of Hertz (Hz).



GIS (Gebühren Info Service GmbH), is a subsidiary of ORF (The Austrian Broadcasting Authority) and is responsible for managing licence fees in Austria.


Guard interval

In order to take advantage of co-channel signals and reflections that don’t arrive at the receiver at the same time, the first part of the transmitted signal is not used to transfer data. The first part is described as the ‘guard interval’ and can be set to various lengths of the total symbol length. A long guard interval enables signals that have been received relatively late to be used. However, the rate of payload info transfer is lower.




High Definition: term used for decades to refer to the next higher (= better) level of picture definition at the time.



HD+ is a digital platform belonging to HD PLUS GmbH, a subsidiary of the SES Astra satellite operator, for high-definition pay-TV programmes.


HD ready

"HD ready" is a seal of approval from EICTA (European Information & Communications Technology Industry Association). The seal represents minimum requirements that a TV set or display must satisfy in order to be able to receive and display HDTV.



High Definition Television is a new digital TV standard with a resolution of

1280 x 720 or 1920 x 1080 pixels (picture elements). HDTV on large screens brings the cinema experience into the home. Broadcasters who offer HDTV must produce the program output using special HD equipment and transmit the channel via a dedicated HDTV-compatible distribution route. An HDTV receiver is needed to receive HDTV signals. These receivers have been available on the market since 2006. To display HD images from HDTV signals requires a screen with the "HD ready" logo.



Hertz is the unit of measurement for frequency and is named after the German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. It gives the number of electromagnetic oscillations per second.



Hybrid broadcast broadband TV (HbbTV®) is a recognised standard for Hybrid TV. Additional information supplied by the programme providers is displayed, similar to the video text service, although this info is sourced from an internet connection. This provides a more comprehensive range of options for presenting information and enabling navigation.


(High Definition Multimedia Interface) is an interface enabling the fully digital transmission of audio and video data for consumer entertainment electronics. It unifies existing processes and improves their quality features.


HF Modulator

For the transfer of information (audio, video, data) via high-frequency (HF) the info is layered on an HF carrier; that is - the HF carrier is modulated. The HF modulator built into a DVB-T receiver transforms the decoded video or audio signal into a high frequency signal that can be received by an analogue TV device via the aerial socket.

  • High frequency


High frequency

High frequency (HF) refers to an alternating current (AC) with a high frequency.

  • HF modulator


Hybrid TV

Hybrid TV refers to TV devices and set-top boxes equipped with built-in internet interfaces so that they can display TV and internet content. This technology is dependent upon modern HD devices to ensure the online content can be clearly read. In the medium term the numerous proprietary solutions provided by various manufacturers can be replaced by standard HbbTV as it facilitates an integrative display of television signals with internet content.



Integrated Digital TV (IDTV) denotes TV sets that have a built-in receiver unit for digital signals.



Indoor reception means DVB-T reception using an indoor aerial.



Used in the context of interactive television to indicate a two-way process between user and TV set


Interactive television

Interactive Television or I-TV refers to a form of digital-TV based television usage that ranges from the viewer communicating with the TV set to influencing the plotline.



An Integrated Receiver Decoder (IRD) is a piece of technology that receives and decrypts encrypted TV signals and decodes them for play-out on the TV screen.



In multichannel systems such as Dolby Digital, audio signals are carried over multiple channels.


Media convergence

Media convergence refers to the coming together of various distinct individual media (i.e. TV and internet). This convergence can be seen in terms of economic, technological and content development.



mhp (Multimedia Home Platform) is a European standard for using additional functions in digital terrestrial television. It is an operating system for digital consumer hardware that provides the user with extra facilities over and above routine TV usage, which allow access to add-on information and add-on services and use of interactive applications. mhp is based on the Java software platform amongst other technology.


mhp MultiText

This is the enhanced version of Teletext. It is easy to use, includes photos and graphics and features the new facility of continuing to watch the live TV channel in picture-in-picture mode. To be able to use the new multimedia add-on services, viewers need a DVB-T receiver that includes the mhp MultiText function.


mhp MultiText profile

DVB-T receivers that match the mhp profile let the viewer receive digital terrestrial TV and use the multimedia add-on services based on the international mhp standard.


Modulation techniques

For digital transmissions, the following modulation techniques are available for transmitting the data streams: QPSK, 16 QAM und 64 QAM. A segment of the serial stream of incoming data bits for transmission is modulated simultaneously and in parallel as a symbol on a certain number of carriers. QPSK encodes 2 bits per symbol, 16 QAM encodes 4 bits per symbol and 64 QAM encodes 6 bits per symbol.



MPEG was developed by the Motion Pictures Expert Group. MPEG is used as the compression technique for DVB broadcasts of video, audio and data. It drastically cuts the amount of data that needs to be transmitted, thereby enabling the commercial use of digital transmission systems. The MPEG standard is classified into MPEG 1, MPEG 2, MPEG 3 and MPEG 4. MPEG 2 is the transmission standard that is used for disseminating DVB signals.



Compression standard for multimedia applications up to a data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s.



Compression standard that is an enhanced version of MPEG 1 for a data rate of up to 100 Mbit/s.



Compression standard succeeding MPEG 2.


Multimedia Home Platform

  • mhp
  • mhp MultiText


Multimedia add-on services

  • mhp MultiText


Network gain

The network gain results from signals from more than one transmitter being received simultaneously at one location in a single frequency network. The network gain can equal 3 dB or more if two or more transmitters can be received at equal or approximately equal strength at the receive location, i.e. in critical areas between the transmitters. If, however, the receive field strength from a receivable transmitter is 10dB or more higher than the field strength from the other transmitters that can be received at the same location, then the single frequency network gain is negligible.




Outdoor reception is when the signal is received by an outdoor aerial.



OTT (Over-the-top content) is the free online broadcast of video and audio content without an Internet Service Provider being involved in the distribution or control of the content.


Pay per view

Refers to a charging system for Pay-TV. In this system, the viewer only pays for those programmes that he/she has actually watched, which are unlocked for the specified or chosen time period. Typical Pay per view offerings are movies, adult films, sport (such as football) or concerts.



The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) was the name given to a standard for expansion cards in portable computers. PCMCIA cards work with little power and support Hot Plug, i.e. can be plugged in and out during operation. Since all features of the card needed for automatic configuration of the driver are stored on the card itself, Plug and Play is also possible.


Personal Video Recorder

The Personal Video Recorder (PVR) is a video recorder than contains a hard disk instead of the usual tape drive. The PVR is able to "memorise" the viewing preferences of the user and provide him/her with a personalised channel stored on the hard disk.



The pixel (a made-up word from picture and element) is the smallest unit of the digital raster image on the TV screen. The abbreviation for pixel is px.



The plug is that part of an electrical connector that contains pins for making electrical contact. The mating part to the plug is the socket.


The position of the electric field in relation to the Earth's surface. In Austria, the polarisation in digital terrestrial television is kept mainly horizontal to avoid households needing to re-orientate their TV aerials completely. It is possible to identify the polarisation from the direction of the rods, for instance, on a Yagi-type aerial.



DVB-T: digital terrestrial television can be received e.g. using a laptop at different places such as the park or on the patio.



Quadrature Amplitude Modulation is a technique used in electronic communications that combines amplitude modulation with phase modulation. Two different signals are modulated onto the same carrier wave. The signals are each amplitude-modulated onto a carrier of the same frequency, but phase-shifted through 90 degrees. Then the two carrier waves modulated in this way are combined together.



Quadrature Phase Shift Keying is a digital modulation technique used in telecommunications. QPSK allows simultaneous transmission of 2 bits per symbol, thereby doubling the usage of the available bandwidth.



Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) denotes high-frequency alternating signals.

  • RF modulator


A receiver is a consumer device for decoding digitally transmitted data. This receiver can either be integrated directly in the TV set or exist as an external piece of equipment (DVB-T set-top box).


Return channel

For interactive TV or Pay per View to be possible, for instance, direct communication is needed between the supplier and the consumer. This "return channel" or "back channel" can be provided via the terrestrial cable or the phone line.


RF modulator

When transmitting information (audio, video, data) using radio frequency (RF) signals, this information is superimposed on an RF "carrier" wave, i.e. the RF carrier is "modulated". The RF modulator built into a DVB-T receiver converts the decoded video or audio signal into an RF signal, which an analogue TV-set can receive via its aerial socket.



You use these connectors to connect your TV set, video recorder, satellite receiver, DVD player and other electronic entertainment equipment together in order to transfer audio and video signals between them.


Set-top box

A term used in the electronics entertainment industry to refer to a piece of equipment that is connected to an existing piece of equipment – usually a TV set – to enable the viewer to access new usage features. The set-top box needed for DVB-T is called a DVB-T set-top box.



A made-up word from "simultaneous" and "broadcast" which means the simultaneous transmission of the same TV channels via multiple broadcasting paths. In the switchover to digital terrestrial television there is a simulcast phase, i.e. a parallel phase: in a period lasting several months, the TV-channels are broadcast in the "old" analogue way and also digitally via DVB-T.


Single frequency networks, Multi-frequency networks (SFN; MFN)

For DVB-T, the use of CODFM makes it possible to use single frequency networks (SFN) as well as multi frequency networks (MFN). These single frequency networks must not exceed a certain size for DVB-T to avoid mutual interference. Single frequency networks are far more frequency efficient than multi-frequency networks.


Smart TV

See Hybrid TV



A smartcard is a plastic card containing an embedded chip that holds hardware logic, a memory and even a microprocessor.


Smartcard reader

A device for reading smartcards.



A socket is a contact-laden recess designed for enabling an electrical plug-in contact to be achieved. The socket is connected up with a plug. >> Plugs



A specification is a formal description of a product. It defines and quantifies a product so that it can also be tested against this specification.



Stationary usages means that the DVB-T transmission is always received in the same place, for instance in the sitting room. The DVB-T set-top box is connected to an outdoor aerial and designed to work with a mains supply (230 V).


Statistical multiplexing

Statistical multiplexing is a system of dynamic data-rate allocation to the channels in the same multiplex. If a channel being transmitted requires a higher data rate temporarily (e.g. for rapid camera pans or very fast image sequences), this additional data rate is taken away from other channels that are transmitting "quieter" images. This ensures improved picture quality in critical transmission situations.


Symbol length

The symbol length (or symbol duration) specifies the period of time for which the same carrier-modulated data is transmitted. The symbol length equals 224 ms in 2K-mode and 896 ms in 8K-mode.


Symbol rate

The symbol rate is a parameter used in digital reception. It is a measure of the amount of data that is transmitted per second over a transponder. It is specified in Mega-Symbols per second (MS/s) and depends on the bandwidth of the transponder.




T-DAB (also DAB) is the abbreviation for Digital Audio Broadcasting. It refers to the digital terrestrial broadcasting standard for radio.



The transformation of management structures and services by the use of technology. Example: e-card.


Terrestrial broadcasting

Refers to the wireless communication of radio or television signals from Earth-based transmitters to receivers using an indoor or outdoor aerial and also to mobile devices like car radios.



A transponder is a communications, display or control device that picks up signals and automatically responds to them. The term is obtained by combining the words transmitter and responder.


Transmission rate

The transmission rate (also data rate, data transmission rate) refers to the amount of data that is transmitted within a unit of time. Example: a digital channel with a transmission rate of 16Mbit/s means that it can transmit 16,000,000 bits in one second.



Device integrated in the TV set (or video or DVD recorder) for receiving analogue or digital RF signals.



Ultra High Frequency (UHF) denotes in television engineering a frequency band (470 to 862 MHz; channels 21 to 69) for terrestrial broadcasting of television channels.


USB stick

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a system for connecting a computer to accessory devices. A USB port takes up little space and can provide power to simple devices such as a Mouse, phone, MP3-player or keyboard. USB devices can be connected to each other while in use (Hot Plugging). Connected devices and their properties are detected automatically.




Very High Frequency (VHF) denotes in television engineering a frequency band (174 to 230 MHz; channels 5 to 21 ) for terrestrial broadcasting of television channels.



The Latin word "Video" means in English "I see" (from "vedere" = to see ). Video is applied to the recording, transmission, editing and reproduction of moving images. The term is also used to refer to equipment, for instance a video camera or video recorder.


Video on Demand (VoD)

Consumers are personally able to access TV programmes when they want them. By paying a charge, the programme can be decrypted by a receiver/decoder and then is available for access by the viewer.




16:9 is a term in video technology to describe the relation of the picture width to the picture height. The 16:9 width-to-height TV picture format is becoming increasingly commonplace and will eventually replace the previous standard 4:3 (equivalent to 12:9) format TV picture.


Zapping profile

This profile of a DVB-T receiver supports only receiving digital terrestrial television but not the mhp MultiText service.